Selected publications on the water footprint of energy

Water footprint of various sources of energy

Mekonnen, M.M., Gerbens-Leenes, P.W. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2016) Future electricity: The challenge of reducing both carbon and water footprint, Science of the Total Environment, 569–570: 1282–1288. PDF

Mekonnen, M.M., Gerbens-Leenes, P.W. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2015) The consumptive water footprint of electricity and heat: A global assessment, Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 1(3): 285-297. PDF

Hoekstra, A.Y. (2013) The Water Footprint of Modern Consumer Society, Routledge, London, UK. Info

Water footprint of biofuels from sugar, starch and oil crops

Gerbens-Leenes, W. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2012) The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol, Environment International, 40(1): 202-211. PDF.

Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Van Lienden, A.R., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Van der Meer, Th.H. (2012) Biofuel scenarios in a water perspective: The global blue and green water footprint of road transport in 2030, Global Environmental Change, 22(3): 764-775. PDF

Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Van der Meer, T.H. (2012) Water for bioenergy: A global analysis. In: Gasparatos, A. and Stromberg, P. (eds.) Socioeconomic and environmental impacts of biofuels: Evidence from developing nations, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, pp.69-89.

Gerbens-Leenes, W. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) The water footprint of biofuel-based transport, Energy and Environmental Science, 4(8): 2658-2668. PDF

Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15(5): 1577-1600. PDF

Hoekstra, A.Y., Gerbens-Leenes, P.W. and Van der Meer, T.H. (2010) The water footprint of bio-energy. In: Howe, C., Smith, J.B. and Henderson, J. (eds.) Climate change and water: International perspectives on mitigation and adaptation, American Water Works Association, IWA Publishing, London, UK, pp. 81-95. PDF

Gerbens-Leenes, W., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Van der Meer, T.H. (2009) The water footprint of bioenergy, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(25): 10219-10223. PDF

Gerbens-Leenes, W., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Van der Meer, T.H. (2009) A global estimate of the water footprint of Jatropha curcas under limited data availability, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(40): E113. PDF

Hoekstra, A.Y., Gerbens-Leenes, W. and Van der Meer, T.H. (2009) The water footprint of Jatropha curcas under poor growing conditions, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(42): E119. PDF

Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Van der Meer, Th. (2009) The water footprint of energy from biomass: A quantitative assessment and consequences of an increasing share of bio-energy in energy supply, Ecological Economics, 68(4): 1052-1060. PDF

Water footprint of biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks

Mathioudakis, V., Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Van der Meer, T.H. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2017) The water footprint of second-generation bioenergy: A comparison of biomass feedstocks and conversion techniques, Journal of Cleaner Production, 148: 571-582. PDF

Water footprint of biofuels from algae

Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Xu, L., De Vries, G.J. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2014) The blue water footprint and land use of biofuels from algae, Water Resources Research, 50(11): 8549-8563. PDF

Water footprint of firewood

Schyns, J.F., Booij, M.J. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2017) The water footprint of wood for lumber, pulp, paper, fuel and firewood, Advances in Water Resources, 107: 490–501. PDF

Water footprint of hydro-electricity

Hogeboom, R.J., Knook, L. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2018) The blue water footprint of the world's artificial reservoirs for hydroelectricity, irrigation, residential and industrial water supply, flood protection, fishing and recreation, Advances in Water Resources, 113: 285–294. LINK PDF

Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2012) The blue water footprint of electricity from hydropower, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16(1): 179-187. PDF

Newspaper articles / blogs

Hoekstra, A.Y. (2017) Is there enough land and water to harness renewable energy? China Dialogue, published 9 March 2017. link

Hoekstra, A.Y. (2015) Switching to biofuels could place unsustainable demands on water use, The Guardian, published 28 May 2015. link

Hoekstra, A.Y. (2015) Biobrandstoffen gebruiken veel te veel land en water, Trouw, 17 juni. PDF